Science Report – March 23rd

Crew 207

Research Report

Submitted by Crew Scientist Tiffany Ni

3D Printing Projects

Today is the last full day of MDRS for myself and our crew HSO. Our 3D-printing experiments continue to progress. We have completed printing all of our labware, International Space Station medical inventory items, STEM teaching aids, and are now printing some things here and there around MDRS, as well as other miscellaneous 3D printed projects.

To date, we have printed:

1. Western blot combs (18 well combs for making gels)
2. Microscope slide holder (reusable holder for square coverslips)
3. Sieve mesh (2.0mm holes)
4. Sieve structure (for holding the mesh net)
5. Mobile phone microscope clip
6. Sample box (for 96 tubes)
7. Stackable freezer bin
8. Salt spray chamber drain
9. Triangular straws (in a rainbow of colors)
10. Sieve mesh (5.0mm holes)
11. Sieve structure (for holding the mesh net)
12. Slide box holder (for storing microscope glass slides)
13. Test tube rack
14. Test tube holder
15. Sample rotator components
16. Small test tube holder (for the freezer)
17. Heat gun nozzle mount
18. Tongue depressors (in a rainbow of colors)
19. Stoma bag clip (used as a chip bag clip)
20. Full set of fraction tools (mathematics educational tools)
21. Funnels (small, medium, large)
22. Construction blocks
23. 12 tube separator (for Eppendorf tubes)
24. The side part of thoracentesis trainer
25. Customized finger splint (originally printed on the ISS0

During our time at MDRS, our 3D printed straws proved incredibly useful for our crew members. It has helped greatly in our attempts to reduce our water consumption. At MDRS, we have also demonstrated that a number of our 3D printed labware items are functional – as validated by two basic science research students.

Even though we will be leaving tomorrow morning, we will continue to stay in contact with our MDRS crew members and send 3D printable files for incoming crew members to print! (Perhaps some reusable bubble tea straws?)

Signing off,
Tiffany Ni
Crew 207 Scientist

Science Report – February 17th

Crew 205 – International Emerging Space Leaders

Submitted and prepared by GreenHab Officer Nathan Hadland

1.) ISRU Study: Continued characterization of the regolith samples have produced interesting properties. The pH of most of the samples have yielded a pH that is neutral or slightly alkaline with the exception of one, which is slightly acidic. These values suggest that the substrates may be good candidates for plant growth and retaining nutrients. Higher pH substrates cause the Hoagland’s #2 hydroponic nutrient supplement to precipitate out. The probes in the Science Dome to investigate conductivity and redox potential are not operational, so this property will not be investigated until returning to Florida Tech. Using an agar media plug, germinated Arabidopsis thaliana seeds were transferred from the agar germination plate into regolith samples. However, the regolith is exhibiting interesting wettability properties, largely drying out within several hours despite ample watering, effectively killing the fragile Arabidopsis seedlings quickly overnight. The Arabidopsis seeds were planted again this afternoon, with more plants per sample and care to arrange the regolith around the plug to prevent quick dehydration. Dead plant material from the GreenHab was taken and dried using an oven in the Science Dome and subsequently weighed for the cellulosic ethanol ISRU study. We will begin a study soon mixing the regolith samples with potting soil to try to improve the success of this study. See attached pictures to see experimental design.

2.) GreenHab: The inventory of equipment in the Science Dome and GreenHab as well as the plants currently growing is nearing completion and we have begun a list of the seed bank. We suggest these lists to be available to crews prior to rotation and checked and updated while at MDRS. This will improve the ability of crews to design experiments and mission plans effectively and improve the efficacy and safety of all participants involved. Additionally, the sugar snap peas appear to be stagnating, so a nutrient supplementation solution (Miracle Grow) was diluted using the industry standard and applied to the base of the peas along with a few other species sparingly.

3.) EVA Project: The success of an extravehicular activity (EVA) depends highly on both the EVA crew and CapCom crew being aware of the planned objectives and the intended route. This means that both parties should conduct the planning of the EVA together, in order to understand what is to be accomplished and what hazards could change the EVA’s outcome. Crew and CapCom should also be in contact during the EVA for both safety and additional information on EVA progress. The following post-EVA checklist will allow crews of planetary exploration analog sites going on EVAs to expose deficiencies in both the planning and execution of the EVA. This process allows planners and team members to improve their process of preparing for an EVA. This will lead to more effective and safe EVAs.

4.) SOP and Guidelines for Future Crews: So far, the IESL Crew (Crew 205) have drafted Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) that provide checklists for leaders, HSOs and support crew for before and after EVA missions. These SOPs will improve efficiency, reduce ambiguity and streamline the processes involved in preparing for and executing surface operations safely and effectively. Some of the overwhelming themes contained in these SOPs are:

o Ensuring that requisite special mission equipment is secured and checked prior to EVAs

o Ensuring that participants understand both the objectives and scheme of movement for the EVA

o Ensuring that durable equipment (EVA suits, tools, etc.) is operable and mission-ready prior to EVA, and is properly recovered afterwards, with maintenance needs immediately annotated

o Ensuring that potential risks have been identified and mitigated prior to departure

o Ensuring that all of these requisite tasks are completed by every EVA team of every crew as an operational standard, not a mere suggestion

5.) Astronomy: One week has passed since the start of crew 205 rotation. Two observations were submitted, but the weather prohibited the completion of one observation. The target observed was SY MON, while we called the other target MDRS Target 1. 4 photometry measurements were performed for SY MON as per the below table. The Magnitude Value of 14.132 was submitted for the AAVSO website.

Mag Value Comp Stars Labels Check Star Label Error Comment
14.147 93 111 122 134 148 No Check Stars were used 0.01568 This measurement was repeated because of no check star was used, CCD setting was wrong and there are better ways to select comp stars.
13.918 140 143 132 97 Check star used indicates bad measurement or check star itself was saturated Measurement repeated
14.118 140 143 132 No check star because this is manual calculation It was found that Comp 97 positioned outside the straight line of the curve, thus it was decided to exclude it.
14.132 140 143 132 122 0.0185 Data was submitted to AAVSO

Science Report – February 13th

Science Report 13 February 2019

Crew 205 – International Emerging Space Leaders

Submitted and prepared by GreenHab Officer Nathan Hadland

1.) ISRU Study: Geological characterization of regolith samples began with observations under the optical and dissection microscopes. We have also been performing spectral analysis using a spectrometer to get the initial elemental characterization. Analysis of pH and redox potential of samples to determine the suitability of the substrate to host plant growth will be investigated in the coming days. Additionally, the Arabidopsis thaliana seeds were prepped using a washing protocol and plated on an agar germination plate. We are waiting on germination to occur. Dead plant material from the GreenHab was taken and dried using an oven in the Science Dome and subsequently weighed for the cellulosic ethanol ISRU study.

2.) GreenHab: Dead and live samples of cucumbers were taken from the GreenHab and wet mounts were prepared and viewed under the optical microscope. We found evidence of degraded cell structure, likely from the fungi growing on the dead plants. The live tissue comparatively had all of the expected components of plant cells including stoma and clear cell walls. The carrots that were not harvested were moved from around the grow bed and consolidated into one section of the planter.

3.) Astronomy: The variable star SY MON was observed on 11 Feb 2019. The observation session was one 60 s exposure using the V filter. On 12 Feb 2019, the magnitude value was measured for SY MON using AstroImage J software. The magnitude value was found to be 14.147. The value will be submitted to the AAVSO. Another observation session was submitted on 12 Feb 2019. The session was for the ASASSN-V J081823.00-111138.9 variable star with the aim of drawing a light curve. The observation session was 9 exposures in the V filter and 9 exposures in the B filter. The V filter exposures were 60 seconds, and the B filters exposures were 120 seconds. However, due to the bad weather, no images were captured.

4.) EVA Project: The primary research technique was changed after testing analysis methods from the mission plan during EVA’s of the first 2 days. A new research focus has been adopted and is currently under development. In practice, a “score” will be assigned to each EVA to determine its effectiveness by evaluating various parameters. More data will be available in upcoming reports.

5.) Effective Leadership: Role rotations will begin tomorrow and the first survey conducted on the current commander, N. Larrea will be collected tonight.

6.) Developing Guidelines (SOPs): Water conservation procedures, improved communications procedures, and EVA preparation procedures are being developed. An inventory of the Science Dome, GreenHab, and the RAM are also being compiled as well as an improved list of food provided to crews.

Science Report – February 5th

Crew 204 Science Report 05-FEB-2019

Science report

Title: Happy hour germination

Author: Avishek Ghosh

1. Sprouting of seeds

Team: Sonal Baberwal, Avishek Ghosh

It feels great to see the initial stage of germination and plant growth in different soil compositions that are prepared by varying the amount of garden soil and carbon dust (extracted from charcoal) by combining with MDRS soil and JSC-MARS-1. The JSC-MARS-1 and it’s organic mixtures seem more promising as compared to local MDRS soil mixtures. The plants that are transferred from regular garden soil to JSC-MARS-1 Mixtures are surviving and growing even the germinated seeds started sprouting.

But, the MDRS local soil and it’s organic compositions seems to hold less capacity to provide enough nutrients to the plants which started dying on the first day of transfer. At the same time, the water is drying out quickly from these mixtures.

Although it is the initial stage of the investigation, however, more iterations through a long duration observation are required to derive the conclusions.

2. Experimental Greenhab preparation

Team: Pranit Patil, Sonal Baberwal, Avishek Ghosh

The crew is happy to see new seeds are sprouting and growing quickly. A few of them are actually turning into the green with leaves. Initially, after transfer, the plants were surviving during the first day but slowly started dying on local MDRS soil mixtures.

3. Rover assembly and integration

Kunal Naik (Space_Bot)

The technical difficulties in rover were resolved this morning. The battery test and camera have performed well during the EVA. The rover started rolling on MDRS terrains.

Science Report – February 03rd

Title: The Martian experimental benefactor.

Author: Avishek Ghosh

1. Processing and preparation of soil

Team: Sonal Baberwal, Avishek Ghosh

Various soil composition (8 variations) have been prepared from MDRS soil, JSC-MARS-1, Charcoal and garden soil stored in Greenhab. Another material is also added with existing soil composition to prevent compaction. Water has been poured into all the prepared soil samples and left overnight. The complex compositions have soaked water quickly even got dried till morning. Other basic compositions were holding the moisture.

2. Experimental Greenhab preparation

Team: Pranit Patil, Sonal Baberwal, Avishek Ghosh

A few sprouted seeds along with some grown-up mustard plants have been transferred and planted to the new 8 different soil compositions that are prepared yesterday. Observation is required on the surviving capacity and growth of the seeds and plants on new soils. A regular growth has also been observed on the sprouted seeds that already planted in regular garden soil.

3. Rover assembly and integration

Kunal Naik (Space_Bot)

The rover has experienced some issues related to power system and wirings which was resolved at the earliest. The battery test and camera performance test have been executed inside RAMM (Engineering lab). It is ready to be operated outdoor during the EVA’s through a newly developed local server connectivity. But the real communication system is yet to be tested.

4. 3D Printer assembly and test run

Avishek Ghosh (Carbon flight)

Today, finally Commander was able to start the printer system and successfully extrude materials through the tube with automatic/manual settings in engineering to develop. It took a bit of time to develop the mechanical assembly but the entire machine responds well during operations. Printed a sample (MARS) of a few layers during the test run. Further upgradation is required to develop complex printed structures.

Science Report – January 26th

Hi Mission Support this is the final science report.

1.

Title: Evaluation of germination of greens under different light wavelengths.

Research team: Hermes Bolivar, Freddy Castañeda, David Mateus

Results

We don’t have results yet, Because, the materials for build the necessary structures arrive to the station late, the experiment stay in process and David will collect the results in the next days.

2.

Topic: Star tracker Positioning systems

Researcher: Hernan David Mateus Jimenez

During the simulation it was not possible to work in this project due to time, however David is going to continue working in this project during his internship at MDRS

3.

Title: Ethnography of MDRS

Researcher: Hernan David Mateus Jimenez, Pablo Cristancho

During the simulation David sent 3 Logbooks to Pablo Cristancho and they are going to be analyzed in Colombia

4.

Topic: Recycling & Space sustainability

Researcher: Hernan David Mateus Jimenez,

During the simulation David gathered a set of data of de solid garbage produced by crew 203, this is going to be analyzed after simulation

4.

Title: Photogrammetry parameters of some samples of the MDRS region.

Researchers: Liza Forero, Fabián Saavedra.

Results: Some outcrops and rock samples were taken in situ. All the images that where obtain are being processed with other satellite images to create DEM´s (Digital Elevation Models). Each model is a 3D recreation of the photographed landscape.

5.

Title: Physic and chemical parameters of some samples of the MDRS region and sample processing with geobiologic potential.

Researchers: Liza Forero, Yael Méndez.

Results: Some grids were made in different areas of the MDRS zone, for each grid three parameters were analysed, conductivity, pH and absorbance, the results of each parameter lecture are being analysed and processed statistically and are going to be compare with an analogue in Colombia.

Samples were collected in North Pinto Hills and Beige Moon region. These samples were characterized according to their physicochemical parameters, finding that, in these places alkalophilic microorganisms can be found, with a high availability of nutrients.

6.

Title: Evaluation of microbiome from surfaces samples at the MDRS

Research team: Yael Mendez, Hermes Bolivar, Oscar Ojeda

Results:

This project could not be completed. The temperature of the incubator was not stable due to generator failures and thermal shock occurred, which affected the bacterial cultures. It is expected that next crews can resume the experiment.

7.

Title: Design and construction of an equipment for measuring, register and monitor the variables necessary for the characterization of evapotranspiration in soilless crops with simulation of regolith of Mars.

Researcher: Freddy Castañeda

Results:

An unexpected failure in the controller made the equipment unusable for taking measurements, a spare controller was requested but it didn’t reach the simulation time. The experiment will be developed on the campus of the National University of Colombia recreating the now known conditions of the Mars desert.

8.

Title: Evaluation of the germination of greens on analog Martian soil.

Researcher: Hermes Bolivar, Fredy Castañeda, David Mateus.

Results:

The project has been finished, we saw that the number of seeds on the Martian soil with the potting mix is less than the control, this result, show us the difficult for culture with the Martian soil and require of more research.

Thanks for your attention, regards,

Yael Méndez
Crew Scientist and HSO

Science Report – January 20th

Science Report 20 Jan 2019
Crew 203
Submitted by Yael Natalia Méndez/ Crew Scientist and HSO

After having performed 3 EVA for data collection of geology and microbiology, the crew began their activities in the science dome. Characterizing the collected rocks, organizing the collected data for photogrammetry and processing the microbiological samples of surfaces collected at the station.

The experiments in the greenhab also started 2 days ago. The crew made different mixtures of soil and regolith to plant peas. The objective of this project is to determine the viability in gemination of the crops.Tests are being conducted in the greenhab to determine the percentage of oxygen and the incidence of this in crops. The lysimeter is assembled and the container for planting must be adapted.

Two daily reports of the ethnographic study are being sent.

Science Report – January 11th

Science Report 11 Jan 2019

Crew 202 – Martian Makers

Submitted by EXO Denys Bulikhov

1. Stress levels and decision making during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) by Denys Bulikhov.

Description:Extravehicular activity is an extremely demanding task, physically and psychologically. EVA exposes astronauts to significant physiological stress. Multiple studies have shown that human decision making is strongly influenced by stress. It has been demonstrated that stress changes participant’s attitude towards risk which in case of EVA may lead to dangerous consequences. This particular study is designed to investigate the possible influence of physiological stress experienced by participants during simulated planetary EVA on their decision-making. Different conditions of stress will be simulated (no EVA, regular EVA, some level of stress after EVA). The amount of stress will be evaluated through a procedure approved by Purdue’s Institutional Review Board, involving collection of saliva and appropriate measurements.

Results:All planned data was collected for this experiment. Crew cortisol levels and decision-making patterns were collected in calm conditions, after the EVA’s, and after the Cold Pressor test. Data has multi-directional character (no clearly visible patterns), but it is too early to identify if research questions were answered. The full analysis will be performed during the Spring semester at Purdue University.

2. Radiological mapping of MDRS and surrounding area by Denys Bulikhov.

Description:While Earth is protected from radiation by the thick atmosphere, Mars is much more susceptible to high-energy radiation from space. If astronauts have to spend extended periods of time outside the protection of caves and lava tubes, it is important to know areas with lower concentration of radiations. While the levels measured at MDRS will be relatively low, this project will show techniques to map radiation on Mars.

Two different Geiger counters will be used to measure the amount of ambient radiation at different heights in the areas surrounding the habitat. Some of the measurement will be taken by instrument mounted on a lightweight drone.

Results:Due to the extreme cold weather during the first week, electronic Geiger counter failed to work along with multiple batteries. Measurements with drone were not performed since only the electronic Geiger counter was small enough to be installed on the drone. Radiation readings were collected with analogue Geiger counter and manually recorded along with coordinates of the measurements’ locations. This proved to be very difficult in the spacesuit wearing thick gloves.

Ambient radiation readings were collected in 32 different points around MDRS. The levels were between the lowest 10 uR/h (point 3 around Cactus rd) and the highest 30 uR/h (point 3 around Kissing Camels Ridge). One location between Lith canyon and Dinosaur Quarry had a high reading of 127 uR/h (dark spot on the stone wall, which most likely were fossilized remains), however it wasn’t an ambient radiation but emition of specific material/mineral. The final result of this research will be a map of MDRS and surrounding area with specific points and associated ambient radiation levels.

3. Study of microbial ecosystem in microgreens by Jake Qiu.

Description: The human microbiome encompasses many types of microbial organisms within different taxa groups. The human microbiome encompasses many types of genus including Firmicutes and Bacteroides as well as known microbial pathogens – even in healthy individuals. In long-term space travel, it is common practice to sterilize all equipment and consumables. Unfortunately, there are still sources of microbial contamination due to us – humans require synergistic relationships with microbial lifeforms to maintain good states of health. Thus, when we travel outside of Earth, not everything is sterilized and there are still essential plants that will need to be grown for essential nutrients. In the ecological environment of the rhizosphere – the roots of the microgreens; there are many different microbes that can be harmful to the growth of the plants. There is a need for further investigation on how the human microbiome can impact the rhizosphere of microgreens. I propose to investigate how human-associated microbes can impact the phenotypic properties of the microgreens as well if it harbors any potential pathogens that is a concern for long-term Mars colonization.

Daikon Radish microgreens was used as the candidate organism due to their essential vitamins and fast harvest date. Vitamins are crucial in human biology and required for long-term planetary exploration. Unfortunately, they have a quick degradation rate in comparison to other nutrients in shelf-stable products. Growing microgreens in space and planetary colonization provides an answer to these essential nutrients, thus I am using Daikon Radish microgreens which was chosen as the candidate organism to test how human associated microbes impacts the rhizosphere of microgreens.

Results:Three conditions will be tested: grey water, soil, and control. Grey water will be extracted from the kitchen water, toilet water, and dirty dishes. Soil condition will be extracted from the soil in pots of radishes in the greenhouse. Control will be boiled water. Each condition will be used to inoculate the Throughout growth, each day will be sampled with a swab to obtain microbes and will then be fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. On harvest date, daikon radish microgreens will be characterized with an analog scale and graduated cylinder to obtain fresh weight and fresh volume. Shoot length and leaf size will be determined by ruler.

All extracted microbial swabs will be processed back at Purdue University to obtain community structure of all conditions throughout growth. Bacterial DNA will be extracted from swabs through genomic DNA extraction kits. Amplicon sequencing will be performed on either the hypervariable region V4-V5 of the 16s rRNA gene or full-length 16s rRNA gene. Genomic sequencing will be analyzed either by Nextgen sequencing or nanopore sequencer. Sequence analysis can be determined by QIIME to understand the community structure of the rhizosphere.

4. Composting and recycling waste on Mars by Kasey Hilton.

Description:The purpose of this project was to log and analyze the waste produced at the Mars Desert Research Station. Due to the restricted amount of storage available during space travel and limited resources in a Martian habitat, reducing and reusing as much waste as possible is vital. Analyzing and sorting the trash allows for the creation of a compost pile. A compost pile would not only provide a way for waste to be reused that would otherwise take up space but would also provide plants with nutrients needed to grow and would introduce microorganisms into the environment. For a healthy compost, a 1:25 ratio of nitrogen rich to carbon rich waste is needed. A log of human waste was also collected as a secondary resource in case trash alone could not create the proper ratio of nitrogen to carbon rich waste. This was achieved by each of the crew members tallying what kind of waste they produced in the bathroom. Finally, the trash from the campus was separated into compostable and non-compostable. The compostable waste was then sorted into carbon rich and nitrogen rich and the non-compostable was sorted in to recyclable and non-recyclable.

Results:Although all the final numbers for how much waste was produced have not been calculated yet, it was obvious that the station’s trash did not produce enough carbon waste to create a healthy compost. Human waste would have to be added in order to create a proper ratio of nitrogen and carbon rich compounds. It was originally hypothesized that there would not be enough nitrogen rich waste, but in the end there was actually a large excess of nitrogen rich waste. Outside of paper towels and wipes there was a lack of carbon rich waste. Carbon rich waste is typically things like wood chips and leaves, and since those things aren’t found on Mars, it would have to be made up for with other kinds of waste.

5. Classroom outreach via asynchronous Q&A by Alexandra Dukes.

The original mission plan for outreach included three projects: Question and Answer Classroom Outreach, Age Focused Research Descriptions, and a Mars Cooking Demonstration.

The Question and Answer Classroom Outreach was intended to be a focused interaction between selected schools in California and Nevada in which the crew would answer questions via video sent by students. This project evolved into a new outreach initiative called “Crew 202 20 Questions”. These videos capture crew members in their working environment and picks their brain about their role at MDRS, their research, and their general thoughts on space exploration. We believe these videos could be used in classrooms as a way to engage students in different aspects of space exploration including chemistry, geology, biology, and psychology. This could also be used as a tool for general public outreach to give insight into MDRS and why everyone should be excited about the future of human space exploration!

The Age Focused Research Descriptions were intended to be descriptions of key research projects described for three different age groups: K-3, 6-8, and 9-12. The last two weeks were spent observing the crew during their research projects and gathering as much information as possible. The plan going forward is to create the three descriptions for one research project a month up to five research projects (one per crew member excluding the journalist). These descriptions will be delivered to each crew member and be used to facilitate outreach.

The Mars Cooking Demonstration was intended to be a Food Network style video on how to cook on Mars aimed toward general public outreach. This idea has evolved to become a picture by picture recipe guide on how to cook biscuits and gravy out of the dehydrated Mars ingredients. The pictures will be taken on Sol 14 and a “Mars recipe” will be posted online in the next few months. We believe this will be a great way to shed light on what it is like to live on a Mars simulation and give future Martians a few tips on how to make their dehydrated food dust, not only edible, but delicious!

6. Analysis of mineralogy and regime of sand dunes and fluvial processes by Ellen Czaplinski.

Description: Features found in the MDRS study area, such as paleo channels and dunes, provide opportunities to access exposures that detail their depositional environment and the role that water played in their formation. Further, studying inverted channels and dunes near MDRS contributes to our understanding of the sedimentation processes that shaped these features, providing an Earth analogue to ones found on Mars. These characteristics are suitable to support the important task of determining efficient spectroscopic techniques for in situ sample analysis to prepare for future crewed missions to Mars. Spectral information of samples around the MDRS are useful in comparing this area to Mars. Smectites like montmorillonite and nontronite are common around the habitat and are two of the most common clay minerals found on Mars. Studying clay minerals is relevant in that the identification of specific clay minerals can offer information such as the geochemistry of the primary rocks. Analyzing these types of clays in the IR is important, since IR spectroscopy techniques have the ability to differentiate 1:1 versus 2:1 silicate-layer type clays, as well as different chemical compositions of clays (montmorillonite versus nontronite).

Results: In total, Crew 202performed 12 EVAs during our two week stay, 10 of which geologicalsamples were collected and returned. EVA destinations included Kissing Camel Ridge W, Greenstone Rd, Hab Ridge, Marble Ritual, Stream Bed Connector, Galileo Rd 1104/Cactus Rd 1104, Beige Moon, Gray Moon, Glistening Seas, and Lith Canyon. The geological samples were organized based on their EVA number, collection location, and initial observations. Using the TREK portable spectrometer, we have taken spectral measurements of all samples. After the mission, we will then characterize the minerals present in the samples.

Some EVAs did not allow us to take the TREK with us (e.g. The Moons/Glistening Seas/Stream Bed Connector since the ATVs were our mode of travel). In these cases, we were only able to take spectra in the lab, therefore not able to compare in situ spectra to laboratory spectra. While there are no extensive dune fields present near MDRS, many of our EVA destinations included areas where enough sand was present to form ripples and cross-bedded sandstones. These samples were collected at several locations (Greenstone Rd, Kissing Camel Ridge W, Cactus Rd 1104, and Lith Canyon). Other features of interest on our EVAs included large rock falls of
Cretaceous boulders that originally rested atop the hills (e.g. Kissing Camel Ridge).

These boulders were also found at the base of hills on Cactus Rd, Stream Bed Connector, and Lith Canyon. At every location of the Cretaceous-aged boulders, we used a rock hammer to chip off a piece of the boulder and noticed a mineral faint green in color that formed a thin line adjacent to the sandstone layer. It is no surprise that many of our samples included clays, sandstones, and mudstones, as these are some of the most common geologic samples around MDRS. We also collected many samples of smooth, dark rocks and mixtures of clay minerals that appear to be altered (possibly due to heat).

Science Report – January 3rd

Science Report
3 Jan 2019
Crew 202 – MartianMakers
Submitted by GEO Ellen Czaplinski

Analysis of mineralogy and regime of sand dunes and fluvial processes: The crew collected geological samples from six sites during their EVA near Kissing Camel Range. Samples included whole rocks, rocks separated from a larger parent body, and sand samples. Initial sample analysis consisted of classifying the rocks based on texture, grain size, sorting, and color using a hand lens and microscope. The samples were primarily sandstone, clays, shale, and sand from fluvial features like channels. Further analysis will need to be carried out in order to determine the mineralogy of the samples with the TREK portable spectrometer, and eventually compared to IR spectra of the samples taken in the lab.