Science Report – February 10th

Update information:

The crew who vomited yesterday recovered well.

The crew performed regular work completely.

The crew had enough sleep and rest in the last night.

The crew had breakfast and lunch today as normal. Currently, the crew has an appetite.

There are no adverse symptoms relating to the allergy observed for the crew.

Status:
Recovered

Thank you.

Sincerely,
Tatsunari Tomiyama, AHFP

Sol Summary – February 10th

Sol 13

Summary Title: Mars-2-Mars and Breaking Sim
Author’s name: Ryan L. Kobrick, Ph.D., MDRS Crew 188 Commander
Mission Status: The mission is complete and the floors are mopped.

Sol Activity Summary:

The simulation came to a close with a Mars-2-Mars hangout on WebEx where crewmembers form MDRS Crew 188 and Kepler Station AMADEE-18. It was a lively chat about life on Mars as our crew ends our mission and their crew begins theirs. The conversation was recorded with several different cameras and a video will be spliced together with field footage.

Soon after our final task, the crew ended our mission at 10:02 am local time bursting from the Hab front airlock with 5 cameras rolling. The blast of fresh air was refreshing but instantly followed by an intense day of cleaning the entire campus from top to bottom. We helped resupply some of the water tanks and removed garbage.

The crew will enjoy relaxing on their last evening at MDRS. Thank you everyone for your support and for following our mission! I hope you enjoyed our diverse reports and photos. Please check out the photos and videos we have tagged with #MDRS188 on social media and check out our online team accounts:

Website: https://isuonmars.com
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TeamISUonMars
Twitter: https://twitter.com/ISUonMars

Spacesuit Up!
Ryan L. Kobrick, Ph.D.
MDRS Crew 188 Commander

Look Ahead Plan:
We depart MDRS tomorrow morning after our 8 am check-out.

Anomalies in work:
None.

Weather:
Calm winds and hazy skies with warm dropping all day.

Crew Physical Status:
There is a mixture of anxiety to get work completed, excitement to return home to loved ones, and sadness to be separating from our Martian family.

EVA:
15 EVAs were completed during our mission.

Reports to file:
1. Ops Report
2. Sol Summary

Support Requested:
None.

Mission Summary – February 10th

MDRS Crew 188 Mission Summary
Team ISU on Mars
Mission Dates: 27 January – 10 February 2018

Commander: Dr. Ryan L. Kobrick, Canada/USA

Executive Officer: Renee Garifi, USA

Health & Safety Officer: Tatsunari Tomiyama, Japan
Crew Engineer: Zac Trolley, Canada
Crew Astronomer/GreenHab Officer: Julia DeMarines, USA

Artist in Residence/Crew Journalist: Dr. Sarah Jane Pell, Australia

We are Team ISU. We are a highly motivated group of scientists, engineers, thinkers, creators and innovators from around the world who hold graduate degrees from the International Space University (ISU) Masters and Space Studies Programs. This distinguished university has provided all of us with an invaluable life experience that has shaped our collective careers in the current space industry. We share a passion for space research, engineering, the arts, mission design, operations, and exploration that unites us as a tightly bonded team of space adventurers.

Team ISU has closed out their third rotation at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), comprised of two weeks of intense research, team building, and simulation training on Mars. Our expertise and experience in international, intercultural and interdisciplinary professional teams prepared us for the variety of unique mission challenges. For example, Crew 188 dealt extremely well despite adversities including stress and safety concerns. Our diverse backgrounds supported a unique problem-solving culture and aptitude for collaborating on a common goal. The first Mars settlement will undoubtedly be an international venture. The culture was an important part of our MDRS time as we shared meals, workouts, workshops, and videos between EVA’s. Publications and creative engagement are underway from our mission’s research projects. We conclude with a sense of gratitude, pride in our work and excitement for the future.

Overview of Team Goals

· Continue an annual partnership between participants from the International Space University and planetary analogue research stations.

· Productively function as an international and interdisciplinary team.

· Gain team and individual experience in a Mars analogue simulation.

· Learn from the team’s collective background and experiences.

· Experiment and gather data towards publications.

· Promote awareness and passion for space exploration via education and outreach.

· Share with the public how research is conducted in an analogue situation.

Summary of Research Experiments

1. Increasing Spaceflight Analogue Mission Fidelity by Standardization of Extravehicular Activity Metrics Tracking and Analysis

Analogue missions allow the flexibility of capturing many different operational data. This Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) Spacesuit Utilization of Innovative Technology Laboratory (S.U.I.T. Lab) project focused on capturing physical and biometric data from the 15 extravehicular activities (EVAs). Investigated EVA metrics included collecting GPS data (timestamps, waypoints, distance traversed), the “task” or EVA objectives, and biometrics (heart rate, respiratory rate, skin temperature, blood oximetry, and body acceleration). For consistency pilot data was collected with one crewmember, and future studies will build to full crew tracking. The investigation of human performance data with respect to workload expenditure will help identify energy limitations, thus maximizing explorers’ potential.

2. Remote Video Capture Analysis of Spacesuits for Spaceflight Analogue Expeditions

The crew successfully captured on video prescribed range of motion tasks for an unsuited subject, and the subject wearing two different types of simulated spacesuits used at MDRS. The crew reported on operational checklist improvements and sent data to the ERAU S.U.I.T. Lab. This approach derives how to communicate effective instructions to a remote crew, and then analyze simulated spacesuit performance. The MDRS Crew 188 collected the second set of data with the first videos provided by the Hawai’i Space Exploration Analogue and Simulation (HI-SEAS) 2017 mission. Improvements from the MDRS 188 team were sent both the AMADEE-18 in Oman and the Mars Society Israel mission at the Makhtesh Ramon Crater, both occurring in February.

3. Dust Abrasion and Operations Investigation of Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) Gloves

Final Frontier Design (FFD) outer-layer Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) spacesuit gloves were worn on EVAs by one crewmember. The gloves were photographed before the mission and after every EVA to examine the abrasive wear for post-mission analysis. The gloves offered realistic dexterity limitations that would be expected in a pressured garment and outer layer.

4. Martian Dust Filter Tests

A new filtration unit from NASA Glenn Research Center was used to examine airlock dust contamination post EVAs. Measurements with an optical particle detector were taken five times encapsulating each EVA’s operations (pre- EVA before and after the crew entered, mid-EVA, and post-EVA before and after the crew entered). A variety of filters were changed on the filtration unit each test and a special vacuum filter was utilized when cleaning the airlock. All these test combined will look at particle size distribution and total load. Data collected from this research will further facilitate the mitigation of astronaut’s and habitat systems’ exposure to dust particles on the surface of celestial bodies.

5. In-situ testing of VEGGIE prototype plant growth hardware: Orbital Aquifer System for VEGGIE (OASYS)

We utilized the GreenHab facility to test a new prototype vegetation system invented by NASA KSC scientists for watering plants in reduced gravity environments. Lettuce and basil were selected as ideal demonstration crops for their quick germination times and ease of harvest. The newly built GreenHab provides controlled temperature, humidity, and light for a variety of vegetable crops growing throughout the field season. Due to limited time within the mission, the vegetable growth period was only 9 days. The OASYS system proved the effective germination of only one lettuce seedling from one of the three plant watering pillows due to an issue with the size of the pillows being larger than normal and the wicks not staying moist. Photos and data were sent to the principal investigators who rated this to be a positive test of the hardware.

6. Performing Astronautics

Artist-in-Residence Dr. Sarah Jane Pell’s MDRS Crew 188 research forms part of her Australia Council Fellowship project titled Performing Astronautics. The aim is to explore the bodily practice of navigation beyond Earth’s atmosphere as an experimental and emerging practice in human performance and expression at the advent of the commercial space era. Dr. Pell initiated EVA experiments, workshop activities, movement participation and reflective pursuits, promoting interdisciplinary exploration and Earth analogues to contribute a critical cultural and aesthetic suite of responses to the MDRS experience including:

1) Bending Horizons 360: human-environmental interactions on the Mars Analogue environment in 8K 360-degree Panorama and 3D Video data.

2) Bubbles on Mars a creative Imagineering experiment on phenomena of blowing bubbles on Earth, to transfer and adapt for a Mars sci-art activity.

3) Mars Olympiad: a series of speculative fiction performances designed and documented for a Virtual Reality or future immersive teaching and learning experience, and international outreach engagement coinciding with the Opening Ceremony of the Winter Olympics, to expand knowledge and imaginative capacity for human performance, and teamwork on Mars.

4) Super Blood Blue Moon Total Lunar Eclipse: 6K 360-degree Panorama Video of the Astronomical Phenomena from the Mars Desert Analogue Station.

5) Participation in research and interviews in support collaborations with a fellow crew on EVA spacesuit validation [in partnership with Final Frontier Design FFD], environmental interactions, science and engineering engagement, human factors and performance research, with local crews, future MDRS Crew participants, and global Analogue Crews.

As Crew 188 Journalist in Residence, Dr. Pell contributed an adaptation of Maslow’s human needs for future life on Mars, reported on public outreach activities and reflected on the Mars Society MDRS mission priorities Science, Simulation and Science (adding a little of space art and society) and sharing in the conversations and personalities shaping the shared human experience of life on a simulated Mars station.

Dr. Pell thanks the support of A/Prof David Barnes of the Monash Immersive Visualisation Platform [MIVP] for the provision of an Insta360 Pro Camera; and Professor Brenton Dansie of the University of South Australia who generously supported Dr. Pell’s participation in MDRS Crew 188. Performing Astronautics is supported by the Australia Council: the Governments Arts Funding and Advisory Body.

7. Potential Human Activities to Improve Quality of Life on Mars

Tatsunari Tomiyama performed this Human Factors research project. Throughout this mission, the data collection has been completed 3 times and the detailed data performance must be completed later with statistical software tools. However, rough data analysis has been performed using tools in Microsoft Excel. The data analysis shows that personal hygiene will be strongly influenced for the quality of life during this simulation. Following to that, water and radio communication would also likely be influenced. Final details of the result will be analyzed later using computer software.

8. Project Stardust

This collaborative meteorological investigation of micrometeorite samples collected from field sites all over the world now includes samples taken from MDRS. We collected field samples from loose topsoil (<0.5 in) from hilltops surrounding the habitat, filtered, separated and imaged potential micrometeorites other spherules ranging in size from 50 µm to 2 mm, both extraterrestrial (iron ore-containing), terrestrial and anthropogenic that have fallen through the atmosphere and landed on Earth’s surface. Soil samples in a range of particle sizes were bagged and labeled for submission to the principal investigator for further analysis by scanning electron microscope, which we do not have access to here.

We are very excited to bring this project to MDRS because micrometeoroids contribute to the composition of regolith (planetary/lunar soil) on other bodies in the Solar System, not just Earth. Mars has an estimated annual micrometeoroid influx of between 2,700 and 59,000 t/yr. This contributes about 1 m of micrometeoritic content to the depth of the Martian regolith every billion years. These types of analyses on Earth help us understand how the solar system was formed as we venture out to explore it.

9. In-situ Chlorophyll Detection

Julia DeMarines, an astrobiologist, tested out three Chlorophyll detecting devices that are being prototyped by researchers from NASA Ames and Robotics Everywhere LLC (www.f3.to). These handheld Chlorophyll detectors can be operated in the field, indoors, and potentially underneath a Mars rover using chlofluorescence. The results were mixed but overall positive. Julia first tested them indoors using a variety of living and non-living samples collected in the field, in the Green Hab, and around the Hab. Once she was familiar with the interface, she was able to test these samples and get positive results from several leaf samples and negative results from green rocks and green plastic. She was also able to repeat results after resetting the devices. She was able to get a false positive using a green Sharpie marker and was also able to get false negatives on Sage Brush collected from in the field and tested in the science lab as well as Sage Brush measured in the field. Also in the field, she was not able to get a positive detection on a very green agave-like plant. Overall, the detectors are promising to use if the interface were a little more user-friendly and easier to see while in the field and while wearing gloves.

10. Mars-to-Mars Hangout: Connecting Mars Basecamps Across the Red Planet

The ERAU S.U.I.T. Lab created an opportunity for the MDRS Crew 188 to connect live via video conference with the AMADEE-18 analogue simulation simultaneously running a Mars research mission, located at the Kepler Station, Dhofar Region, Oman. The MDRS Crew 188 completed their Mars simulation by communicating in real time with a crew facing similar challenges, echoing an authentic multi-crew mission to Mars located at different base camps.

CONCLUSION

What brings this team together is our common dream of space exploration. With a vast collective experience of working in international teams, a skill fostered and developed by ISU, our crew understands the importance of defining roles within a team and have learned to cope with high-stress situations in small living spaces. Completing a mission together at MDRS has challenged us to improve our professional communication while expanding our friendships.

We would like to extend our gratitude to the MDRS Mission Support Team who have supported our crew every evening during the Comms window. Special thanks goes to Dr. Shannon Rupert, Kayundria “Kay” Hardiman Wolfe, Bernard Dubb, Veronica Brooks, Sylvain Burdot, Graeme Frear, Jennifer Holt, Nishat Tasnim, Peter Detterline, Chris Welch, Volker Damann, Barnaby Osborne, Geraldine Moser, Joshua Nelson, Michael Davies, Dr. Chris McKay, Matteo Borri from Robotics Everywhere LLC, Dr. John Deaton, Morgan Eudy, Heather Allaway, Anderson Wilder, Dr. Luke Roberson, The NASA-KSC VEGGIE Team, Juan Agui, the International Space University Southern Hemisphere Program, University of South Australia, Monash University, Monash Immersive Visualisation Platform, Australia Council, Blue Marble Space, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, NASA Florida Space Grant Consortium, Space Florida, Dr. Robert Zubrin and the Mars Society, The Musk Foundation, MDRS Crew 147 and 162 and our friends and families back home who have supported us during this two-week mission.

Ad Astra!
Crew 188

Mission Summary (Spanish) – Crew 187 – Team Latam II

Mars Desert Research Station

Mission Summary

Crew 187 – Team Latam II

 

Comandante/Astrónoma: Cynthia Yacel Fuertes Panizo (Perú)

Oficial Ejecutivo: Atila Kahlil Meszaros Henostroza (Perú)

Ingeniero de Tripulación: Luis José Antonio Díaz López (Perú)

Oficial del Invernadero: Hernán David Mateus Jiménez (Colombia)

Científico de tripulación/Oficial AEV: Oscar Ivan Ojeda Ramirez (Colombia)

Oficial de Seguridad y Salud: Danton Iván Bazaldua Morquecho (México)

Periodista: Tania Maria Robles Hernandez (México)

Declaración de la Comandante

 

Tuve el honor de trabajar con una tripulación de gran talento, no solo a nivel profesional, sino también en lo personal. Nuestras raíces provienen de Perú, Colombia y México; pero en nuestros corazones llevamos la responsabilidad de representar a toda Latinoamérica, lo cual siempre haremos con nuestro mejor esfuerzo. Cada miembro de la tripulación fue clave para poder culminar con éxito la misión; fueron valiosas sus experiencias, conocimientos en ciencias e ingeniería, su alto compromiso por hacer la simulación lo más real posible, su trabajo en equipo y apoyo constante; siguiendo siempre la filosofía de “¡Todos para uno y uno para todos!”.

Cada día en Marte fue una gran aventura; celebramos un cumpleaños marciano, recargamos un tanque de diésel, vimos el sol, la luna, las constelaciones, entre otras maravillas del universo, fuimos los primeros exploradores de un cañón, y tuvimos el honor que toda tripulación desea tener, otorgar el nombre a un cañón y a una carretera, es así que el cañón El Dorado y la carretera Despacito – porque se tiene que ir lentamente por esa ruta por seguridad de cada tripulante – son ahora parte del mapa del MDRS, El Dorado es una antigua leyenda sobre una ciudad llena de oro que desafiaba a todos los exploradores que se atrevían a buscarla. Para nosotros llamarlo así refleja la curiosidad que nos despertó como nuevos exploradores de Marte y el deseo de dejar allí una marca latinoamericana.

Me siento orgullosa de cada miembro de esta tripulación, ya que a su corta edad han logrado grandes cosas con ese coraje y fuerza que caracteriza a todo latino. No importa que tan grande sea el reto y los obstáculos que cada uno tenga que vencer, estoy segura que con esfuerzo, coraje y dedicación lograrán hacerlo; así como vencimos todos juntos las adversidades que tuvimos en nuestra estancia en el MDRS. En estos fabulosos 15 días, cada uno ganó experiencia, adquirió nuevos conocimientos, amplió su manera de ver el universo, y aprendió de los demás. Más que ser parte de una tripulación, nosotros pasamos a ser parte de una familia … ¡una familia marciana!

La tripulación 187 se encuentra eternamente agradecida por el apoyo y la confianza brindada por The Mars Society, Dr. Robert Zubrin, Dr. Shannon Ruppert, Mission Support y todas aquellas personas e instituciones que creyeron en cada uno de nosotros.

 

Ad Astra,

Cynthia Fuertes Panizo

Comandante de la tripulación 187 – MDRS

 

Resumen de Actividades Extra Vehiculares

 

Las Actividades Extra Vehiculares (AEV) en la exploración espacial no son rutina y, con seguridad, en las primeras etapas de la exploración de Marte, seguirá siendo así. Cada AEV es diferente a la otra, no solo porque los objetivos cambian, también porque las circunstancias cambian. Uno de los aspectos más importantes de la simulación en el MDRS es la posibilidad de simular estas actividades y experimentar las primeras afirmaciones de primera mano. Realizar AEVs es una gran oportunidad para aprender y probarnos de forma física y psicológica. Ser capaces de probar nuestra capacidad de reacción ante lo inesperado, solucionar problemas que surgen de la nada, lidiar con el estrés, y ser capaces de regresar a casa cada día, a una taza de chocolate caliente, y estar listos al día siguiente para pasar de nuevo por lo mismo.

La tripulación 187 realizó un total de 15 AEVs, sin contar las frecuentes excursiones de nuestro ingeniero al generador. La mayoría de los destinos fueron sugeridos por la Directora Shannon, llevándonos a zonas previamente inexploradas del área del MDRS. Algunas de las AEVs eran de rutina, para gastar las baterías de los vehículos eléctricos, para extender su vida, 4 AEVs de este tipo se realizaron. Las otras AEVs nos permitieron probar los proyectos de los tripulantes. Las pruebas en general fueron exitosas, logrando la mayoría de los objetivos científicos. De igual forma, pudimos explorar lugares que no habían sido visitados antes, o en un largo periodo de tiempo, por tripulaciones anteriores. La mayoría de actividades ocurrieron sin ningún problema, pero es importante mencionar el hallazgo de las huellas de puma, así como el drenaje de la bateria del rover Deimos, que llevó al equipo a encontrar soluciones para llevar el vehículo y a ellos mismos a casa.

Oscar Ojeda

Oficial de AEV

 

Resumen del Invernadero

Al final, el Greenhab quedó tan hermoso como el comienzo. Durante la misión tuvimos que hacer algunos cambios en el interior para dar más espacio a la acuaponia y cuidar las plantas que estaban frente al ventilador que habían sido dañadas. Después de estas modificaciones, recibimos una lona de alta resistencia para colocarla debajo del revestimiento y proteger las plantas que están expuestas a la radiación solar. Durante las dos semanas, se desarrollaron 3 proyectos en el Greenhab, lo que involucró un montaje de la acuaponia, germinación de diferentes tipos de quinua en dos tipos de suelo, uno análogo a Marte y otro comercial. Además, se trabajó en la medición de evapotranspiración de un cultivo de quinua en suelo análogo marciano, los datos que se obtuvieron van a ser analizados para dar recomendaciones para el Greenhab y el proceso de riego.

 

David Mateus

Oficial del Invernadero

 

Resumen de las Operaciones de Ingeniería

 

Durante nuestra estadía en la MDRS se realizó una recarga del tanque de diésel por un total de 300 galones, los cuales permitieron alimentar al generador eléctrico, encargado de proveer energía al Hábitat y a todas las estructuras de la estación. Cabe resaltar que debido al problema de control de nivel de agua encima de los dormitorios, fabricamos con éxito una alarma con sensor de nivel de agua para ser alertados en el preciso momento en el que debía cerrarse la llave.

Así mismo, basándonos en el problema suscitado con uno de los Rovers durante un EVA de larga duración, implementamos un protocolo de seguridad en el que, desde ahora, es obligatorio llevar un Kit de supervivencia (alimentos y herramientas), así como cuerdas gruesas que permitan remolcar un vehículo en caso de avería.

 

Luis Díaz

Ingeniero de la Tripulación


 

Informe final de los proyectos

Aplicación móvil como agente de ayuda en el MDRS

Cynthia Yacel Fuertes Panizo

Ingeniera de Sistemas. Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, Lima – Perú

cynthiayfp@gmail.com

 

Según Gardner, Android es el sistema operativo con más usuarios en todo el mundo, por ello, las aplicaciones que desarrollaré serán para Android, utilizando los softwares Unity, Monodevelop, Vuforia, JDK y Android SDK.

Durante la simulación, trabajé haciendo una aplicación para el observatorio solar, la cual cuenta con 5 partes: instrucciones de seguridad, peligros potenciales, control de mano, alineación y enfoque. Al seleccionar la primera opción, se descargará un PDF con las Instrucciones de seguridad. En la segunda opción, se mostrará un mensaje emergente con el asesoramiento de los peligros potenciales. La tercera opción, permitirá reconocer el control manual del telescopio y superponer las partes principales del mismo y cuando se seleccione alguna se mostrará un breve concepto sobre cada una. Para el cuarto y quinto caso, se descargará un PDF para cada uno. Además, tengo la intención de trabajar con los equipos del laboratorio de ciencia, ya recolecté la información que necesito para ello. Además, tengo la intención de probar la aplicación final con tripulaciones futuras.

 

 

Divulgación de temas espaciales con una aplicación móvil

Cynthia Yacel Fuertes Panizo

Ingeniera de Sistemas. Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, Lima – Perú

cynthiayfp@gmail.com

 

Durante la simulación, recolecté información que necesitaba, como imágenes, videos, mapeo 3D de algunas zonas que visitamos, del MDRS, etc. En Perú, comenzaré a crear la aplicación y planeo utilizarla en una escuela de un área vulnerable de Perú con el fin de difundir temas relacionados al espacio como lo es el MDRS, Marte, entre otras cosas.

 

Resistencia de cultivos peruanos a suelo análogo de Marte

Atila Meszaros

Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima – Perú

atilameszaros1@gmail.com

Se seleccionaron tres clases de quinua y una de kiwicha para demostrar su resistencia a la tierra análoga de Marte y para demostrar su valor para ser incluidas en las futuras dietas marcianas. Durante Sol 7, se plantaron tres réplicas y un control. Han sido regados una vez al día con 250 ml de agua. Hasta ahora, el control no ha germinado, y se espera los que están plantados en el suelo análogo de Marte, que comenzarán a germinar durante los próximos dos soles.

 

Compensaciones de acuaponia y comparación con métodos de jardinería regulares en MDRS

Atila Meszaros

Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima – Perú

atilameszaros1@gmail.com

Este proyecto se desarrollará durante los próximos meses y se llevará a cabo dentro del programa de pasantes, con el apoyo de los oficiales del invernadero de las siguientes tripulaciones para mantenerlo en funcionamiento. Inicialmente, solo se utilizarán las funciones hidropónicas y se realizará una comparación rentable entre el sistema hidropónico y las técnicas de jardinería habituales. Durante esta rotación, el sistema de acuaponia está casi completamente configurado y vamos a comenzar a hacer pronto las pruebas de fugas.

Diseño e implementación de un sistema termorregulador para la homologación de la temperatura interna en los trajes de EVA usados por los astronautas análogos en la MDRS

Luis José Antonio Díaz López (Cascas, Perú)

Ingeniero Mecatrónico de la Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Perú

luisjosedl14@gmail.com

La implementación y las pruebas del proyecto fueron exitosas. Debido al frío, solo se probó el sistema de calefacción, que utiliza una resistencia de cerámica comúnmente utilizada en extrusoras de impresoras 3D. Esta resistencia es parte del sistema de intercambiador de calor que transmite, por convección, el calor al agua. Una bomba de agua es responsable de hacer circular el líquido termorregulado dentro de una bolsa para la donación de sangre, que se regula gracias a un diferencial de temperatura que toma como referencia la temperatura externa y la temperatura dentro del traje (específicamente en el área donde se encuentra el corazón). Del mismo modo, la lectura de temperatura se almacena en una memoria microSD junto a la fecha y hora para tener una referencia cronológica de las compensaciones de temperatura que el sistema tuvo que realizar.

 

 

Evapotranspiración en Marte

Hernán David Mateus Jiménez

Ingeniero Mecatrónico, estudiante de maestría en ciencias en ingeniería de sistemas. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá Colombia

hdmateusj@unal.edu.co

La evapotranspiración es el proceso físico que convierte el agua líquida de un área verde en agua de vapor por la acción de la transpiración y la evaporación. Una forma de medir la evapotranspiración es usar un dispositivo llamado lisímetro que mide el peso del cultivo y el peso del lixiviado de forma continua.

El lisímetro comenzó a ensamblarse desde el comienzo de la simulación, pero comenzó a tomar medidas de evapotranspiración en Sol 8, debido a que algunas piezas debían repararse y era necesario hacer un EVA para tomar el suelo marciano. Además, era necesario determinar la cantidad de agua para mezclar con el suelo marciano y obtener la mejor textura. Los datos recolectados durante los seis Soles se analizarán en Colombia para obtener una lista de recomendaciones para mejorar el uso del agua en el invernadero y en los cultivos que usan suelo marciano.

 


 

Sistema de posicionamiento basado en el reconocimiento de estrellas

Hernán David Mateus Jiménez

Ingeniero Mecatrónico, estudiante de maestría en ciencias en ingeniería de sistemas. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá Colombia

hdmateusj@unal.edu.co

En este proyecto, queríamos probar un software que diga cuál es su ubicación, en función de una fotografía que saque del cielo. Este software fue desarrollado en Python usando la librería Opencv. El objetivo era medir la precisión del software para desarrollar en el futuro sistemas de posicionamiento útiles para los EVA nocturnos.

Durante la simulación pudimos tomar la cantidad suficiente de fotos para construir un mapa celeste donde el descriptor SIFT buscará las similitudes con una foto tomada para encontrar su posición.

 

Evaluación de campo del simulador de traje espacial Cóndor

Oscar I. Ojeda

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

oscar6ojeda@gmail.com

El proyecto tuvo como objetivo evaluar el rendimiento del simulador de traje espacial Cóndor, así como sus sistemas independientes. Las actividades consistieron en participar de las AEV con el traje en diferentes configuraciones, las AEV se clasificaron en corto, mediano y largo alcance. Los sistemas probados fueron la colocación completa y la parte flexible combinada con el traje Exo, disponible en MDRS. las AEV consistieron en actividades técnicas, biológicas y geológicas, así como movilidad básica y manipulación de vehículos. Se hicieron varias observaciones sobre mejoras y se implementarán para la próxima versión de la demanda. En general, los resultados fueron positivos, con un alto rango de movimiento, combinado con suficiente restricción, para simular adecuadamente un traje espacial.

 

 

Prueba de una rueda basada en PXCM para un rover planetario

Oscar I. Ojeda

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

oscar6ojeda@gmail.com

El objetivo del proyecto era realizar una prueba de campo básica de una rueda impresa en 3D, destinada a un vehículo de superficie planetario. La prueba hizo uso de un rover automatizado simple, que se implementó en MDRS. La rueda fue impresa por ITAMCO y diseñada en la Universidad de Purdue. Las ruedas fueron recibidas en la estación y ensambladas. En primer lugar, se observó el rendimiento del rover con las ruedas comerciales tradicionales, atravesando diferentes tipos de terreno, que es un análogo para Marte. Posteriormente, las ruedas se instalaron en el rover y se volvieron a probar en terreno analógico. Los resultados observados mostraron un rendimiento equivalente al asumir el terreno. Se sugieren más pruebas de laboratorio y de campo para caracterizar completamente el rendimiento de las ruedas, sin embargo, las primeras pruebas arrojaron resultados positivos.

 

 


 

Detección remota en superficie análoga a Marte

Danton Bazaldua1 Walter Calles2

1UNAM, México 2IPN, México

danton.bazaldua@spacegeneration.org1, walterabdias@gmail.com2

La DRONE DJI SPARK mapeó 5 km de superficie alrededor de MDRS para analizar con cámaras y procesamiento digital para 3D en suelo marciano. Este dron mapeó el suelo del MDRS y el hábitat durante 5 EVA durante dos semanas, lo que ayudará a tomar imágenes a 40 metros de altura para analizarlas posteriormente mediante un procesamiento digital en 3D que nos ayudará a comprender mejor las características del planeta. Además de seguir en superficie con piloto automático el camino de los astronautas en cada expedición luego de que el Dron analice las características de la superficie del MDRS así como el tipo de suelo y sus características básicas utilizando Matlab y Pix4D para analizar las imágenes del Hábitat tomado por el dron.

 

Detección remota de señales vitales

Danton Bazaldua1 Walter Calles2

1UNAM, MEXICO 2IPN, MÉXICO

danton.bazaldua@spacegeneration.org1, walterabdias@gmail.com2

Objetivo: Este dispositivo fue un monitor E.C.G así como algunos aspectos importantes como la presión y la humedad interna del traje espacial de MDRS CREW 187, a través de un sistema de monitoreo enfocado a las Actividades Extra Vehiculares (EVA). Módulo E.C.G además de la posición del cuerpo, piel de respuesta galvánica que transmitirá los datos a la interfaz de usuario en la que se presentan en tiempo real a los astronautas en un reloj inteligente o una interfaz de PC. Sin embargo, el monitor tiene un problema con la conectividad y fue complicado de usar durante EVA, pero se usó para monitorear antes de la expedición de EVA. Los datos médicos han sido útiles para HSO durante la misión de mantener el Crew 187 y diseñar protocolos para elegir al miembro de cada expedición.

 

 


 

Dinámica de funciones cognitivas en una simulación análoga marciana

Betel Martínez Valdés1, José Eduardo Reynoso Cruz1 y José Luis Baroja Manzano1

1Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Departamento de Psicología,

Ciudad de México

betelmarvall@gmail.com

Durante las dos semanas se monitorearon diferentes niveles de fatiga de habilidades cognitivas en miembros de Crew 187 y se comparó con el grupo control de participantes externos no relacionados con la simulación analógica.

Catorce adultos fueron parte del estudio. Los grupos fueron emparejados por sexo, edad, dominio lateral y nivel de estudios. Los sujetos del grupo de apoyo y el emparejamiento de control se elegirán voluntariamente.

.

Dinámica de cooperación en una simulación analógica marciana

Betel Martínez Valdés1, Oscar San Pedro Caligua1

1Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México

betelmarvall@gmail.com

Durante este experimento analizamos la dinámica de la cooperación y el equipo de trabajo. Reciprocidad entre los miembros de la tripulación 187. El comportamiento cooperativo entre los miembros de la tripulación durante la simulación analógica a Marte fue aplicar un dilema social de riesgo colectivo en el que seis astronautas serán jugadores y un coordinador. Esta tarea se aplicará cinco veces en dos semanas, esta información ayudará a analizar el estado de la cooperación durante una misión analógica.

 

Comunicación científica y documental para proyectos espaciales de jóvenes científicos y profesionales en América Latina

Tania Robles

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México

taniarblsh@gmail.com

 

América Latina es una región emergente y en crecimiento en el sector aeroespacial. Debido a su capacidad para ofrecer servicios de desarrollo y fabricación a bajo costo, ha sido aceptado como una de las regiones proveedoras de las compañías y agencias espaciales más importantes.

A pesar de esto, América Latina es un área que no ha desarrollado su infraestructura y capacidades de recursos humanos en el sector. Algunas de las causas pueden ser la ignorancia de los que toman las decisiones. Para este propósito, se ha creado un proyecto de divulgación sobre el trabajo de jóvenes mexicanos y extranjeros en el campo espacial, así como la importancia de estos temas.

El proyecto consiste en la documentación de los problemas y las acciones de los jóvenes estudiantes para resolver problemas de la academia y la industria.

 

Mission Summary – Crew 187 – Team Latam II

Mars Desert Research Station

Mission Summary

Crew 187 – Team Latam II

 

Commander/Astronomer: Cynthia Yacel Fuertes Panizo (Peru)

Executive Officer: Atila Kahlil Meszaros Henostroza (Peru)

Crew Engineer: Luis José Antonio Díaz López (Peru)

GreenHab Officer: Hernán David Mateus Jiménez (Colombia)

Crew Scientist/EVA Officer: Oscar Ivan Ojeda Ramirez (Colombia)

Health and Safety Officer: Danton Iván Bazaldua Morquecho (Mexico)

Journalist: Tania Maria Robles Hernandez (Mexico)

 

Commander’s Statement

 

I had the honor of working with a highly talented crew, not only professionally, but also personally. Our roots come from Peru, Colombia, and Mexico; but in our hearts, we carry the responsibility of representing all of Latin America, which we will always do with our best effort. Each member of the crew was a key to success the mission; their experiences, knowledge in science and engineering, their high commitment to make the simulation as real as possible, his teamwork and constant support were valuable; always following the philosophy of “All for one and one for all!”.

Every day on Mars was a great adventure; we celebrated a Martian birthday, we recharged a diesel tank, we saw the sun, the moon, the constellations, among other wonders of the universe, we were the first explorers of a canyon, and we had the honor that all the crew wishes to have, to give the name to a canyon and a road; in this way El Dorado Canyon and Despacito Road – because you have to go slowly along this road for the safety of each crew member – are now part of the MDRS map. El Dorado was an ancient legend about a city full of gold that challenged every explorer who dared to look for it. For us to call it that reflects the curiosity that awoke in us as new explorers of Mars and the desire to leave in there a Latin American mark.

I feel proud of each member of this crew since at their young age they have achieved great things with that courage and strength that characterizes every Latino. No matter how big the challenge and the obstacles that each one has to overcome, I am sure that with effort, courage, and dedication they will be able to do it; as well as we all defeated together the adversities that they had in our stay in the MDRS. In these fabulous 15 days, each one gained experience, acquired new knowledge, expanded his way of seeing the universe and learned from others. More than being part of a crew, we are part of a family … a Martian family!

The crew 187 is eternally grateful for the support and trust gave by The Mars Society, Dr. Robert Zubrin, Dr. Shannon Ruppert, Mission Support and all the people and institutions that believe in each one of us.

 

Ad Astra,

Cynthia Fuertes Panizo

Commander of the Crew 187 – MDRS

 

Summary of the EVA’s activities

EVAs on Space exploration are not routine, and for sure, in the first stages of Mars exploration, will surely keep that trend. Every EVA is different to the other, not only because the goals change, also because the circumstances change as well. One of the most interesting aspects of the simulation while on MDRS is the possibility to simulate such activities and experience the first two statements firsthand. While most of the crew’s projects were meant to be developed in or close to the habitat and campus, performing EVAs is an extraordinary opportunity to learn and test ourselves in a physical and psychological way. To be able to test our capacity of reaction to the unexpected, to solve problems that arise from thin air, to cope with stress, and to be able to come back home every day, to a cup of warm chocolate, and be ready the next day to go through that again. All that while wearing the space suit simulator, complete with gloves and boots.

Crew 187 performed a total of 15 EVAs, not counting the frequent excursions of our engineer to the generator. Most of our destinations were suggested by Director Shannon, taking us to previously unexplored zones of the MDRS area. Some of the EVAs where more routine, used to cycle the batteries of the rovers, in order to extend their life, 4 of this EVAs were performed. The other EVAs allowed us to test the projects of some of our crewmembers. The general testing was successful, attaining most of the science goals. Also, we were able to explore places that had not been visited before, or in a very long time by previous crews. Most of the activities went without trouble, but it’s important to mention the finding of the cougar prints, as well as the battery drain of Deimos, which led the team to find solutions for taking the vehicle and themselves home.

Oscar Ojeda

EVA Officer

 

Summary of the Greenhab

In the end, the Greenhab was as beautiful as the beginning. During the mission, we had to make some changes in the interior to give more space to the aquaponics and take care of the plants that were in front of the fan that had been damaged. After these modifications, we received a high resistance tarpaulin to place it under the cover and protect the plants that are exposed to solar radiation. During the two weeks, 3 projects were developed in the Greenhab, which involved an assembly of aquaponics, germination of different types of quinoa in two types of soil, one analogous to Mars and another commercial. In addition, we worked on the measurement of evapotranspiration of a quinoa crop in Martian analogous soil, the data that was obtained will be analyzed to give recommendations for the Greenhab and the irrigation process.

 

David Mateus

Greenhab Officer

 

 

Summary of the Operation reports

 

During our stay at the MDRS, the diesel tank was recharged for a total of 300 gallons, which allowed us to feed the electric generator, in charge of supplying power to the Habitat and all the structures of the station. It should be noted that due to the problem of water level control over the bedrooms, we successfully manufactured an alarm with a water level sensor to be alerted at the precise moment in which the key was to be closed.

Also, based on the problem raised with one of the Rovers during a long-term EVA, we implemented a security protocol in which, from now on, it is mandatory to carry a survival kit (food and tools), as well as thick ropes that allow towing a vehicle in the event of a breakdown.

 

Luis Lopez

Crew Engineer

 

 

Final reports of the Projects

 Mobile application as help agent in MDRS

Cynthia Yacel Fuertes Panizo

Systems Engineer. Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, Lima – Peru

cynthiayfp@gmail.com

According to Gardner, Android is the Operating System with more users around the world, therefore the apps that I will develop will be for Android. I am working using Unity, Monodevelop, Vuforia, JDK and Android SDK.

During the Sim, I worked doing the app for Musk Observatory. I organize this app into 5 parts: Safety Instructions, Potential Hazards, Hand Control, Alignment, and Focus. When you select the first option, a PDF will be downloaded with the Safety Instructions. In the second case, a pop up will be displayed with the advice of the Potential Hazards. In the third case, it will allow to recognize the Hand Control of the telescope and overlapping it with the main parts of it and when you select it you will be able to know a short concept about each one. For the fourth and fifth case, a PDF will be downloaded for each one. Also, I have the intention of working with the equipment of the science dom. I already collected the information that I need to do it. Moreover, I have the intention to test the final app with future crews.

 

Spreading space issues using a mobile application

Cynthia Yacel Fuertes Panizo

Systems Engineer. Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, Lima – Peru

cynthiayfp@gmail.com

During the Sim, I worked collecting the information that I need, like pictures, videos, 3D mapping of some zones that we went and so on. When I come back to Peru, I will start to create the app and in the end, I am planning to test it in a school of a vulnerable area of Peru in order to spread a different kind of topics like MDRS, Mars, Space and so on.

 

 Resistance of Peruvian crops to Mars analog soil

Atila Meszaros

Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima – Perú

atilameszaros1@gmail.com

Three kinds of quinoa and one of kiwicha were selected to prove their resistance to Mars analog soil and to prove their value for being included in future martian diets. During Sol 7, three replicas and one control were planted. They’ve been watered once a day with 250 mL of water. Till now, the control hasn’t germinated, and we are expecting, even the ones that are planted on the mars analog soil, to start germinating during the next two Sols.

 

 Aquaponics trade-offs and comparison with regular gardening methods on MDRS

Atila Meszaros

Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima – Perú

atilameszaros1@gmail.com

This project will be developed through the following months and will be taken within the intern program, with the support of the Green Hab Officers of the following crews to keep it running. Initially only the hydroponic functions will be used, and a cost-efficient comparison will be made between the hydroponic system and the regular gardening techniques. During this rotation, the aquaponics system is almost fully set up and we are going to start doing any time soon the leak tests.

 

Design and implementation of a thermoregulatory system for the homologation of the internal temperature in the EVA suits used by the analogous astronauts in the MDRS

Luis José Antonio Díaz López (Cascas, Perú)

Ingeniero Mecatrónico de la Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Perú

luisjosedl14@gmail.com

The implementation and testing of the project were successful. Due to the cold, only the heating system was tested, which uses a ceramic resistor commonly used in 3D printer extruders. This resistance is part of the heat exchanger system that transmits, by convection, the heat to water. A water pump is responsible for circulating the thermoregulated liquid inside a bag for blood donation, which is regulated thanks to a temperature differential that takes as reference the external temperature and the temperature inside the suit (specifically in the area where the heart is located). Likewise, the temperature reading is stored in a microSD memory next to the date and time to have a chronological reference of the temperature compensations that the system had to perform.

 

Evapotranspiration on Mars

Hernan David Mateus Jimenez

Mechatronics engineer, student of master of science in systems engineering

Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota Colombia

hdmateusj@unal.edu.co

Evapotranspiration is the physical process that converts the liquid water from a green area in vapor water by the action of both transpiration and evaporation. One way to measure evapotranspiration is using a device named lysimeter that measures the weight of the crop and the weight of leachate continuously.

The lysimeter started to be assembled since the beginning of the simulation but started to take measurements of evapotranspiration on Sol 8, because some pieces had to be repaired and it was necessary to do an EVA to take Martian soil. Also, it was necessary to determine the amount of water to mix with the Martian Soil and get the best texture. The data recollected during the six Soles are going to be analyzed in Colombia in order to get a list of recommendations to improve the use of water in the Greenhab and on the crops that use Martian Soil.


 

Positioning system based on star recognition

Hernan David Mateus Jimenez

Mechatronics engineer, student of master of science in systems engineering

Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota Colombia

hdmateusj@unal.edu.co

In this project, we wanted to prove a software that says what your location is, based on a photo that you take from the sky. This software was developed in python using Opencv library. The objective was to measure the accuracy of the software in order to develop in the future useful positioning systems for night EVAs.

During the simulation we were able to take the enough amount of photos to build a sky map where the descriptor SIFT is going to search the similarities with a taken photo to find your location.

 

Field evaluation of the Cóndor Space Suit Simulator

Oscar I. Ojeda

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

oscar6ojeda@gmail.com

The project aimed to evaluate the performance of the Cóndor Space Suit Simulator, as well as its independent systems. The activities consisted on partaking on EVAs with the suit in different configurations, the EVAs were classified in short, medium, and long range. The systems tested were the complete donning, and the flexible part combined with the Exo suit, available in the MDRS. The EVAs consisted on technical, biological, and geological activities, as well as basic mobility, and vehicle manipulation. Several observations on improvements were made and will be implemented for the next version of the suit. In general, the results were positive, with a high range of movement, combined with enough restriction, to simulate properly a space suit.

 

Testing of a PXCM based wheel for a planetary rover

Oscar I. Ojeda

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

oscar6ojeda@gmail.com

The project aimed to do a basic field test of a 3D printed wheel, aimed for a planetary surface rover. The test made use of a simple automatized rover, which was implemented in the MDRS. The wheel was printed by ITAMCO and designed in Purdue University. The wheels were received in the station and assembled. First, the performance of the rover was observed with traditional commercial wheels, traversing different types of terrain, which is an analog for Mars. Afterwards the wheels were installed in the rover and tested again, over analog terrain. The results observed showed an equivalent performance while assuming terrain. Further laboratory and field testing is suggested to fully characterize the performance of the wheels, however the first testing showed positive results.

 


 

Remote sensing in mars analogue surface

Danton Bazaldua1 Walter Calles2

1UNAM, MEXICO 2IPN, MEXICO

danton.bazaldua@spacegeneration.org1 , walterabdias@gmail.com2

 

The DRONE DJI SPARK to mapped 5 km of surface around MDRS to analyze with Cameras and digital processing for 3D in Martian soil. This drone mapped the soil of the MDRS and the habitat during 5 EVA for two weeks which will help to take images at 40 meters of height to be later analyzed by a digital processing in 3D which will help us to better understand the characteristics of the Mars surface as well to follow in automatic pilot the way of astronauts in each expedition after that the Drone analyzed the characteristics of the surface of the MDRS as well as the type of soil and its basic characteristics using Matlab and Pix4D to analyze the images of the Habitat taken by the drone.

 

Remote sensing of vital signs

Danton Bazaldua1 Walter Calles2

1UNAM, MEXICO 2IPN, MEXICO

danton.bazaldua@spacegeneration.org1, walterabdias@gmail.com2

OBJECTIVE: This device was a E.C.G monitor as well as some important aspects like the pressure and the internal humidity of the space suit of MDRS CREW 187, through a system of monitoring focused to the Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA). E.C.G module moreover the body position, galvanic response skin that will transmit the data to the user interface in which are presented in real time to the astronauts in a smart watch or an interface pc. However, the monitor has a problem with the connectivity and was complicated used during EVA but it was used to monitoring before EVA expedition. The medical data has been useful for HSO during the mission to keep the Crew 187 and design protocols to choose the member of each expedition.

 


 

Cognitive function dynamics in a martian analogue simulation

Betel Martínez Valdés 1, José Eduardo Reynoso Cruz 1 & José Luis Baroja Manzano 1

1Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Psychology Deparment,

Mexico City

betelmarvall@gmail.com

During the two weeks monitored different cognitive abilities fatigue levels in Crew 187 members and it was compared with control group of external participants not related to the Analogue Simulation.

Fourteen adults were part of the study. The groups were paired by the sex, age, lateral dominance and level of studies. The subjects from the support group and the control paired will be chosen voluntarily.

 

Cooperation dynamics in a martian analogue simulation

Betel Martínez Valdés1, Oscar San Pedro Caligua 1

1 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City

betelmarvall@gmail.com

During this experiment analyzed the dynamics of cooperation and working team. Reciprocity between the Analogue Simulation Crew 187 members. The cooperative behavior between crew members during the analogue simulation to Mars was apply a Collective-Risk Social Dilemma in which six astronauts will be players and one coordinator. This task will be applied five times in two weeks this information will help to analyze the status of the cooperation during an analogue mission.

 

Science communication and documentary to space projects of young scientist and professionals in Latin America

Tania Robles

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City

taniarblsh@gmail.com

Latin America is an emerging and growing region in the global aerospace sector. Because of its capabilities to offer development and manufacturing services at low costs, it has been accepted as one of the supplier regions of the most important companies and space agencies.

Despite this, Latin America is an area that has not developed its infrastructure and human resources capacities in the sector. Some of the causes can be the ignorance of the decision makers. For this purpose, an outreach project has been created on the work of young Mexicans and foreigners in the space field, as well as the importance of these issues.

The project consists of documentation of the problems and actions of young students to solve problems of academia and industry.